The MIM-23 Hawk was a US medium-range surface-to-air missile system from the Cold War period. The first prototypes of the MIM-23 Hawk missile appeared in the late 1950s, and entered the line in the US armed forces in 1959, where they served in units of the Marine Corps until 2002! Probably around 40,000 rounds of this type were produced around the world.
The MIM-23 Hawk system was designed to replace the Nike Hercules MIM-14 missiles. Compared to its predecessor, the new missile had a better range, a much higher probability of destroying the target with the first shot, and a smaller size and weight. The targeting and communication systems (especially targeting radars) were also significantly improved, and the MIM-23 missile itself was equipped with semi-active radar guidance. In 1971, the system underwent a thorough modernization, focusing on improving the electronics and radar, which further increased its combat capabilities. The system so modernized was designated Improved Hawk. In 1995, the MIM-23 Hawk system was able to combat short-range ballistic missiles of the ground-to-ground class. By 1994, the missiles of this type were replaced by the MIM-104 Patriot system in US Army units, but they were used in units of the Marine Corps until 2002. The MIM-23 missiles were licensed in several countries, for example in Japan or Iran, and the MIM-23 Hawk system was used by many users, including: Saudi Arabia, Belgium, Denmark, Egypt, France, Israel and Germany. They were used in combat during the Yom Kippur War in 1973 and in the Iran-Iraq War in 1980-1988.